{:zh}

2-1 ()(yuē)(wéi)(zhèng)()()()()(běi)(chén)()()(suǒ)(ér)(zhòng)(xīng)(gǒng)(zhī)

[CN]2-1 孔子说:以道德治理国家,不需要强制,人民也会自然而然地团结在他周围。官事运行不相悖。

2-2 ()(yuē)(shī)(sān)(bǎi)()(yán)()()(zhī)(yuē)()()(xié)

[CN]2-2 孔子说:诗经里诗选三百余篇,用一句话来概括,就是思想不要过分,不走极端。

2-3 ()(yuē)(dǎo)(zhī)()(zhèng)()(zhī)()(xíng)(mín)(miǎn)(ér)()(chǐ)(dǎo)(zhī)()()()(zhī)()()(yǒu)(chǐ)(qiě)()

[CN]2-3 孔子说:如果以政治体制来管理国家,以刑法限定人民的行为,人民会学会钻孔子,逃脱制裁后也不会有羞耻,反而觉得是你法律制定的不好,责任在你;如果以道德来管理国家,以礼来限定人民的行为,人民如果犯错,就会有羞耻心,如果自然就有高尚的品格。

2-4 ()(yuē)()(shí)(yòu)()(ér)(zhì)()(xué)(sān)(shí)(ér)()()(shí)(ér)()(huò)()(shí)(ér)(zhī)(tiān)(mìng)(liù)(shí)(ér)(ěr)(shùn)()(shí)(ér)(cóng)(xīn)(suǒ)()()()()

[CN]2-4 孔子说:我十五岁立志致学,三十岁认定仁是自己的安身立命之道,四十岁才不再对自己的处事之道有困惑,再遇困难都可以从容面对,五十岁知晓自己的职责,六十岁再听到与自己相左的意见也能与听好话一样心里通畅无碍,七十岁的时候,尽管顺着自己的心去做事,也不会破坏各种所谓的规矩了。

2-5 (mèng)()()(wèn)(xiào)()(yuē)()(wéi)(fán)(chí)()()(gào)(zhī)(yuē)(mèng)(sūn)(wèn)(xiào)()()()(duì)(yuē)()(wéi)(fán)(chí)(yuē)()(wèi)()()(yuē)(shēng)(shì)(zhī)()()()(zàng)(zhī)()()()(zhī)()()

[CN]2-5 权臣孟懿子向孔子请教什么是孝。孔子回答说,不违背。樊迟给孔子驾车的时候,孔子告诉他,刚刚孟懿子问我什么是孝,我告诉他,不要违背。樊迟不明白,就问,这是什么意思啊?孔子说,活着的时候,以礼对待,死了的时候,以礼埋葬,以礼祭祀。其实这里之所以说的这么隐晦,并没有提到父母,是因为孔子在暗指为政之人大孝在天下,除了对自己的父母孝,对待国君,对待人民,都该如此。下面的几则回答就具体了很多,便更可以证明此处隐晦是有原因的。

2-6 (mèng)()()(wèn)(xiào)()(yuē):“()()(wéi)()()(zhī)(yōu)。”

[CN]2-6 孟懿子之子孟武伯向孔子请教什么是孝。孔子回答说:父母对孩子悉心照料,生怕孩子会生病。你若能以同样的心情对待父母,就是孝了。

2-7 ()(yóu)(wèn)(xiào)()(yuē):“(jīn)(zhī)(xiào)(zhě)(shì)(wèi)(néng)(yǎng)(zhì)()(quǎn)()(jiē)(néng)(yǒu)(yǎng)()(jìng)()()(bié)()?”

[CN]2-7 子游向孔子请教什么是孝。孔子说,今天大家说起孝,都认为是能供养他们吃穿,给他们零花钱。但是你看你养个马,养个狗也都是给它们物质供养。如果心里不尊敬父母,跟养猫养狗有有什么区别?

2-8 ()(xià)(wèn)(xiào)()(yuē):“()(nán)(yǒu)(shì)()()()()(láo)(yǒu)(jiǔ)(shí)(xiān)(shēng)(zhuàn)(céng)(shì)()(wéi)(xiào)()?”

[CN]2-8 子夏向孔子请教什么是孝。孔子说,永远给父母以好的态度是最难的。哦,父母需要干粗活的时候子女代劳了,有好吃好喝的先给父母吃,你认为这些就是孝了吗?(当然不是的。天天甩脸色给父母看,他们还不如没有这个孩子呢。)

2-9 ()(yuē):“()()(huí)(yán)(zhōng)()()(wéi)()()退(tuì)(ér)(xǐng)()()()()()()(huí)()()()。”

[CN]2-9 孔子说:我跟颜回说话,一天到晚,他从来都没有跟我相左的意见,就像他没有自己的思想,傻傻的。但他回家自己反省之后,竟然能完全领受我的意思,不但理解,还有自己的发挥。颜回啊,一点也不傻。

2-10 ()(yuē):“(shì)()(suǒ)()(guān)()(suǒ)(yóu)(chá)()(suǒ)(ān)(rén)(yān)(sōu)(zāi)(rén)(yān)(sōu)(zāi)?”

[CN]2-10 孔子说:观察一个人,看他的动机,观察他做一件事情的方法,检测他的心是安住在什么地方。一个人的性格如何能藏的住呢?如何能藏得住呢?

2-11 ()(yuē):“(wēn)()(ér)(zhī)(xīn)()()(wéi)(shī)()。”

[CN]2-11 孔子说:温习已经学习的内容,知道新的知识,就可以当老师了。另释,参阅历史,对比今天,可以把历史当做自己的老师。

2-12 ()(yuē):“(jūn)()()()。”

[CN]2-12 孔子说:君子不能一味追求技能,而把自己搞成一个工具。真正的君子有道德为准绳,指导自己的行为。

2-13 ()(gòng)(wèn)(jūn)()()(yuē):“(xiān)(xíng)()(yán)(ér)(hòu)(cóng)(zhī)。”

[CN]2-13 子贡请教孔子什么是君子,孔子说,少许诺,如果真的要许诺,先去做了,再说出口。

2-14 ()(yuē):“(jūn)()(zhōu)(ér)()()(xiǎo)(rén)()(ér)()(zhōu)。”

[CN]2-14 孔子说:君子心胸广阔,待所有人都是一样的,不会因为门户,财力,行业,籍贯而把人区别看待。而不成熟的人对万事万物都要进行比较一番,有一万个理由和依据,对不同的人区别对待。

2-15 ()(yuē):“(xué)(ér)()()()(wǎng)()(ér)()(xué)()(dài)。”

[CN]2-15 孔子说:只知道学习,不知道在生活中反思运用发挥,那么所学都是无用,人就变成书呆子了。但如果不爱学习,不勤恳地拿道德来约束自己,只是爱动歪脑筋,那么一个人就会走偏,那无论对人对已,都是危险的。

2-16 ()(yuē):“(gōng)()()(duān)()(hài)()()。”

[CN]2-16 孔子说:不要专门在歪门斜道上打主意,想着投机取巧,这样做对自己是有害的。

2-17 ()(yuē):“(yóu)(huì)()(zhī)(zhī)()(zhī)(zhī)(wéi)(zhī)(zhī)()(zhī)(wéi)()(zhī)(shì)(zhī)()。”

[CN]2-17 孔子说:子路呀,我有必要告诉你什么叫做知道。知道就是知道,不知道就是不知道,这才是真正的知道。

2-18 ()(zhāng)(xué)(gān)()()(yuē):“(duō)(wén)(quē)()(shèn)(yán)()()()(guǎ)(yóu)(duō)(jiàn)(què)(dài)(shèn)(xíng)()()()(guǎ)(huǐ)(yán)(guǎ)(yóu)(xíng)(guǎ)(huǐ)()(zài)()(zhōng)()。”

[CN]2-18 子张想要当公务员挣点工资养家,就来请教孔子。孔子说,自己不知道的事情,多听别人说以排除自己的疑问,自己知道的事情谨慎开口,这样就可以少犯错,祸从口出嘛;有重大的事情时,多观察可以排除危险,其它的稍小的事情,也要谨慎处理,这样就可以避免做让自己后悔的事情。说话没什么过错,行事没什么过错,工资自然而然就有了嘛。

2-19 (āi)(gōng)(wèn)(yuē):“()(wéi)()(mín)()?”(kǒng)()(duì)(yuē):“()(zhí)(cuò)(zhū)(wǎng)()(mín)()()(wǎng)(cuò)(zhū)(zhí)()(mín)()()。”

[CN]2-19 鲁哀公问孔子,怎样才能让人民对我心服口服?孔子说,任用提拔正直的人做,罢除那些行为不端的人,人民就服你了;相反,如果任用行为不端的人,而罢除了正直的人,人民就不服了。

2-20 ()(kāng)()(wèn):“使(shǐ)(mín)(jìng)(zhōng)()(quàn)()(zhī)()?”()(yuē):“(lín)(zhī)()(zhuāng)()(jìng)(xiào)()()(zhōng)()(shàn)(ér)(jiáo)()(néng)()(quàn)

[CN]2-20 季康子问孔子:如何规劝民众,让他们对上级尊敬,忠心呢?孔子说,你管理人民时,自己行为检点庄重,他们自然就对你尊敬了;你在做事的时候,对上无违,对下慈爱,人民自然就对你忠心了。任用奖赏正直的人的,而教导那些做的不好的,人民自然就被劝服了。

2-21 (huò)(wèi)(kǒng)()(yuē):“()()()(wèi)(zhèng)?”()(yuē):“《(shū)(yún):‘(xiào)()(wéi)(xiào)(yǒu)()(xiōng)()。’(shī)()(yǒu)(zhèng)(shì)()(wéi)(zhèng)()()(wéi)(wéi)(zhèng)?”

[CN]2-21 孔子说:有人问孔子说,你怎么不去从政啊? 孔子回答他, 《尚书》上说,“孝啊,可以让兄弟友爱。” 这种情感会进一步影响国家管理,促使君臣民相安,这就是在从政了。你以为什么是从政呢?

2-22 ()(yuē):“(rén)(ér)()(xìn)()(zhī)()()()()(chē)()()(xiǎo)(chē)()(yuè)()()()(xíng)(zhī)(zāi)?”

[CN]2-22 孔子说:一个人如果不讲信用,不信守承诺,就不知道他能做什么,能做到什么程度。就像一辆牛车,没有车与牛链接的横梁,一辆马车没有马与车链接的接口,谁能保证这样的车能正常运作,跑的起来?

2-23 ()(zhāng)(wèn):“(shí)(shì)()(zhī)()?”()(yuē)(yīn)(yīn)()(xià)()(suǒ)(sǔn)()()(zhī)()(zhōu)(yīn)()(yīn)()(suǒ)(sǔn)()()(zhī)()()(huò)()(zhōu)(zhě)(suī)(bǎi)(shì)()(zhī)()。”

[CN]2-23 子张问孔子:老师你能预知十世,三百年以后的社会是什么情形吗?孔子说:殷朝继承了夏朝的礼仪文化,他们添加的,删除的我们都知道;周朝继承了殷朝的礼仪文化,他们添加了哪些,删除了哪些我们也能看到。因此你推测下去,未来继承周朝文化的朝代,别说是十世三百年了,就算是百世三千年,我们也能够得知。

2-24 ()(yuē):“(fēi)()(guǐ)(ér)()(zhī)(chǎn)()(jiàn)()()(wéi)()(yǒng)()。”

[CN]2-24 孔子说:不是自己的鬼却偏要去祭拜,谄媚;看到需要你去做的正义之事却不去做,胆小。意为前一种人心不安于自己的职责,太贪,后一种人该做的事无法贯彻,没有原则,这两种人都不适合从政。

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2-1 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(wéi)(do /)(zhèng)(government /)()(with /)()(DE(virtue) /)()()(is like /)(běi)(chén)(the Polaris /)()(stay /)()(its /)(suǒ)(place /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(zhòng)(numerous /)(xīng)(star /)(gǒng)(surround /)(zhī)(it /)。”

[EN]2-1 The Master said, “He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.”

2-2 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(shī)(sān)(bǎi)(the three hundreds pieces of poems /)()(one /)(yán)(word /)()(to /)()(resume /)(zhī)(it /)(yuē)(say /):“()(think /)()(without /)(xié)(extremism /)。”

[EN]2-2 The Master said, “The three hundred pieces of odes in the Book of Poetry can be concluded in one sentence – ‘thinking without extremism.'”

2-3 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(dǎo)(manage /)(zhī)(it /)()(with /)(zhèng)(politique /)()(regulate /)(zhī)(it /)()(with /)(xíng)(penalty /)(mín)(people /)(miǎn)(avoid /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(without /)(chǐ)(shame /)(dǎo)(manage /)(zhī)(it /)()(with /)()(DE(virtue) /)()(regulate /)(zhī)(it /)()(with /)()(LI /)(yǒu)(have /)(chǐ)(shame /)(qiě)(and /)()(honorable /)。”

[EN]2-3 The Master said, “If the government manage the people with politique, and regulate them with punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If the overnment manage the people with virtue, regulate them with LI, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become honorable.”

2-4 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“()(I /)(shí)(yòu)()(fifteen /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(zhì)(determine /)()(to /)(xué)(learn /)(sān)(shí)(thirty /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(fix /)()(shí)(forty /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(not /)(huò)(doubt /)()(shí)(fifty /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(zhī)(know /)(tiān)(universe /)(mìng)(life /)(liù)(shí)(sixty /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(ěr)(ear /)(shùn)(easy and smooth /)()(shí)(seventy /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(cóng)(follow /)(xīn)(heart /)(suǒ)(‘s /)()(desire /)()(without /)()(transgress /)()(rule /)。”

[EN]2-4 The Master said, “At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning. At thirty, I stood firm to the principle of REN. At forty, I had no longer any doubts on what I insisted. At fifty, I knew the decrees of the universe. At sixty, my ear can accepte anything easily, the good ones and the bad ones. At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right.”

2-5 (mèng)()()(A person (name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(xiào)(filial piety /)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“()(no /)(wéi)(violate /)。”(fán)(chí)(A person (name) /)()(drive /)()(Confucius /)(gào)(tell /)(zhī)(him /)(yuē)(say /):“(mèng)(sūn)(A person (name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(xiào)(filial /)()(to /)()(me /)()(I /)(duì)(respond /)(yuē)(say /)()(no /)(wéi)(vilate /)。”(fán)(chí)(A person (name) /)(yuē)(say /):“()(what /)(wèi)(mean /)()(.. /)。”()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(shēng)(alive /)(shì)(treat /)(zhī)(them /)()(with /)()(LI /)()(die /)(zàng)(bury /)(zhī)(them /)()(with /)()(LI /)()(worship /)(zhī)(them /)()(with /)()(LI /)。”

[EN]2-5 Meng Yi asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “do not disobey.” Soon after, as Fan Chi was driving him, the Master told him, saying, “Meng-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him, – ‘do not disobey.'” Fan Chi said, “What did you mean?” The Master replied, “That when parents are alive, one should serve them according to propriety; and when passed away, one should bury them, and worship them according to propriety.”

2-6 (mèng)()()(A person (name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(xiào)(filial piety /)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“()(father /)()(mather /)(wéi)(lest /)()(his /)()(illness /)(zhī)(.. /)(yōu)(anxious /)。”

[EN]2-6 Meng Wu basked what filial piety was. The Master said, “Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick.”

2-7 ()(yóu)(A person (name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(xiào)(filial piety /)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(jīn)(nowadays /)(zhī)(.. /)(xiào)(filial piety /)(zhě)(.. /)(shì)(is /)(wèi)(mean /)(néng)(can /)(yǎng)(support /)(zhì)()(come to /)(quǎn)(dog /)()(horse /)(jiē)(all /)(néng)(can /)(yǒu)(have /)(yǎng)(support /)()(not /)(jìng)(respect /)()(how /)()(can /)(bié)(distinguish /)()(..(interrogation) /)?”

[EN]2-7 Zi You asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The filial piety nowadays means to support one’s parents. But one can support as well as his dogs and horses by giving them food and a place to live; – without reverence, what is there to distinguish these two kinds of support?”

2-8 ()(xià)(A person (name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(xiào)(filial piety /)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“()(countenance /)(nán)(difficult /)(yǒu)(have /)(shì)(affaire /)()()(younger generation /)()(serve /)()(his /)(láo)(toil /)(yǒu)(have /)(jiǔ)(drink /)(shí)(food /)(xiān)(shēng)(elder generation /)(zhuàn)(take /)(céng)(..(rhetorical questions) /)(shì)(this /)()(wéi)(consider /)(xiào)(filial piety /)()(.. /)?”

[EN]2-8 Zi Xia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The difficulty is with the countenance. When their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, or when the young have wine and food, they let their elders eat first. Do you consider THIS to be filial piety?”

2-9 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“()(I /)()(with /)(huí)(A person (name) /)(yán)(talk /)(zhōng)(end /)()(day /)()(no /)(wéi)(objection /)()(as if /)()(stupid /)退(tuì)(retire /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(xǐng)(introspect /)()(his /)()(self /)()(also /)()(enough /)()(to /)()(apply and develop /)(huí)(A person (name) /)()(.. /)()(not /)()(stupid /)。”

[EN]2-9 The Master said, “I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said – as if he were stupid. But after retired and introspected, he was also able to apply and develop my teachings. Hui! – He is not stupid.”

2-10 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(shì)(see /)()(suǒ)(his /)()(motives /)(guān)(observe /)()(suǒ)(his /)(yóu)(path /)(chá)(examin /)()(suǒ)(his /)(ān)(rest /)(rén)(person /)(yān)(how /)(sōu)(conceal /)(zāi)(.. /)(rén)(person /)(yān)(how /)(sōu)(conceal /)(zāi)(.. /)?”

[EN]2-10 The Master said, “See one’s motives; observe his method of doing; examine in what things he rests. How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?”

2-11 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(wēn)(reheat /)()(old /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(zhī)(know /)(xīn)(new /)()(can /)()(with /)(wéi)(be /)(shī)(professor /)()(..(confirmation) /)。”

[EN]2-11 The Master said, “When you review history, they can alway give you some ting new. Histories and old knowledges can be your teacher.”

2-12 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(jūn)()(**a moral person ** /)()(not /)()(utensil /)。”

[EN]2-12 The Master said, “A moral person is not a utensil.”

2-13 ()(gòng)(A person (name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(jūn)()(a moral person /)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(xiān)(firstly /)(xíng)(act /)()(his /)(yán)(speech /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(hòu)(then /)(cóng)(follow /)(zhī)(them /)。”

[EN]2-13 Zi Gong asked what constituted a moral person. The Master said, “He acts his speech before speak it out, and afterwards speaks according to his actions.”

2-14 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(jūn)()(a moral person /)(zhōu)(circle /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(not /)()(compare /)(xiǎo)(rén)(a person not of complete virtu /)()(compare /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(not /)(zhōu)(circle /)。”

[EN]2-14 The Master said, “A moral person treat everyone equally and do not compare all the time. A person not of complete virtu compares all the time instead of treating everyone equally.”

2-15 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(xué)(learn /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(not /)()(reflect /)()(..(conditional) /)(wǎng)(useless /)()(reflect /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(not /)(xué)(learn /)()(..(conditional) /)(dài)(dangerous /)。”

[EN]2-15 The Master said, “Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.”

2-16 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(gōng)(study /)()(.. /)()(duān)(extremism /)()(this is /)(hài)(harm /)()(..(emphatic) /)()(.. /)。”

[EN]2-16 The Master said, “The study of extremist methods is injurious indeed!”

2-17 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(yóu)(A person(name) /)(huì)(teach /)()(you /)(zhī)(know /)(zhī)(.. /)()(..(interrongation) /)(zhī)(know /)(zhī)(.. /)(wéi)(is /)(zhī)(know /)(zhī)(.. /)()(not /)(zhī)(know /)(wéi)(is /)()(not /)(zhī)(know /)(shì)(is /)(zhī)(know /)()(..(emphatic) /)。”

[EN]2-17 The Master said, “You, shall I teach you what KNOW is? Say you know it When you really know it; say you don’t know when you do not – this is KNOW.”

2-18 ()(zhāng)(A person (name) /)(xué)(learn /)(gān)()(gain salary by being a civil servant /)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(duō)(more /)(wén)(listen /)(quē)(get rid of /)()(doubt /)(shèn)(careful /)(yán)(speak /)()(.. /)()(others /)()(..(conditional) /)(guǎ)(less /)(yóu)(blame /)(duō)(more /)(jiàn)(watch /)(què)(get rid of /)(dài)(dangerous /)(shèn)(careful /)(xíng)(behave /)()(.. /)()(others /)()(..(conditional) /)(guǎ)(less /)(huǐ)(repentance /)(yán)(speak /)(guǎ)(less /)(yóu)(blame /)(xíng)(behave /)(guǎ)(less /)(huǐ)(repentance /)()(salary /)(zài)(exist /)()(zhōng)(in it /)()(..(confirmation) /)。”

[EN]2-18 Zi Zhang was learning to gain official emolument. The Master said, “Listen more to eliminate your doubts, and speak cautiously those you already know – then you will afford few occasions for blame. Watch more to eliminate perilous possiblilties and be cautious in carrying the others into practice – then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, his emolument is there.”

2-19 (āi)(gōng)(A person(name) /)(wèn)(ask /)(yuē)(say /):“()(What /)(wéi)(do /)()(..(conditional) /)(mín)(people /)()(submit /)?”(kǒng)()(Confucius /)(duì)(respond /)(yuē)(say /):“()(lift(assign) /)(zhí)(upright /)(cuò)(wrong /)(zhū)(those /)(wǎng)(crooked /)()(..(conditional) /)(mín)(people /)()(submit /)()(lift(assign) /)(wǎng)(crooked /)(cuò)(wrong /)(zhū)(those /)(zhí)(upright /)()(..(conditional) /)(mín)(people /)()(not /)()(submit /)。”

[EN]2-19 The Duke Ai asked, saying, “What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?” Confucius replied, “Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.”

2-20 ()(kāng)()(A person name /)(wèn)(ask /):“使(shǐ)(let /)(mín)(people /)(jìng)(respectful /)(zhōng)(faithful /)()(.. /)(quàn)(convince /)()(do /)(zhī)(this /)()(how /)?”()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(lín)(show /)(zhī)(them /)()(with /)(zhuāng)(dignity /)()(..(conditional) /)(jìng)(respect /)(xiào)(filial /)()(mercy /)()(..(conditional) /)(zhōng)(faithful /)()(lift(assign) /)(shàn)(upright /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)(jiáo)(teach /)()(not /)(néng)(can /)()(..(conditional) /)(quàn)(convinced /)

[EN]2-20 Ji Kang Zi asked how to convince the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him? The Master said, “Preside over them with dignity; then they will reverence him. Treat his people as if they were his parents and his children; then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will be convinced to be virtuous.”

2-21 (huò)(Someone /)(wèi)(speak to /)(kǒng)()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“()(Confucius /)()(..(why) /)()(not /)(wèi)(do /)(zhèng)(government /)?”()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“《(shū)(the Book of Documents /)(yún)(say /):‘(xiào)(filial /)()(.. /)(wéi)(only /)(xiào)(filial /)(yǒu)(friendly /)()(to /)(xiōng)()(brothers /)。’(shī)(spread /)()(..(prep) /)(yǒu)(have /)(zhèng)(government /)(shì)(is /)()(also /)(wéi)(do /)(zhèng)(government /)()(..(what) /)()(.. /)(wéi)(is /)(wéi)(do /)(zhèng)(government /)?”

[EN]2-21 Someone addressed Confucius, saying, “Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?” The Master said, “the Shu Jing say – ‘The piety filial and only the piety filial can let people discharge their brotherly duties and further influence the government.’ This is also the exercise of government. What else is exercising government?”

2-22 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(rén)(person /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(not /)(xìn)(keep his word /)()(not /)(zhī)(know /)()(his /)()(availability /)()(..(emphatic) /)()(big /)(chē)(chariot /)()(has no /)()(crossbar for yoking the oxen to /)(xiǎo)(small /)(chē)(chariot /)()(has no /)(yuè)(arrangement for yoking the horses /)()(.. /)()(how /)()(with /)(xíng)(move /)(zhī)(.. /)(zāi)(..(how) /)?”

[EN]2-22 The Master said, “If one does not keep his word, others won’t know if he can get on. How can a large carriage move without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?”

2-23 ()(zhāng)(A person /)(wèn)(ask /):“(shí)(ten /)(shì)(generation /)()(can /)(zhī)(be known /)()(..(interrogation) /)?”()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /)(yīn)(dynasty Yin /)(yīn)(raison(inherit) /)()(..(prep) /)(xià)(dynasty Xia /)()(ritual /)(suǒ)(its /)(sǔn)(take from /)()(add to /)()(can /)(zhī)(be known /)()(..(emphatic) /)(zhōu)(dynasty Zhou /)(yīn)(raison(inherit) /)()(..(prep) /)(yīn)(dynasty yin /)()(ritual /)(suǒ)(its /)(sǔn)(take from /)()(add to /)()(can /)(zhī)(be known /)()(..(emphatic) /)()(.. /)(huò)(.. /)()(inherit /)(zhōu)(dynasty Zhou /)(zhě)(those /)(suī)(even /)(bǎi)(hundred /)(shì)(generation /)()(can /)(zhī)(be known /)()(..(emphatic) /)。”

[EN]2-23 Zi Zhang asked whether the world of ten generations after could be known. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty followed the rituals of Xia; wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Zhou dynasty has followed the rituals of Yin; wherein it took from or added to them may be known. As a result, some other will follow the Zhou dynasty, even after a hundred generations, the world can be known.”

2-24 ()(Confucius /)(yuē)(say /):“(fēi)(not /)()(his /)(guǐ)(ghost /)(ér)(..(conjunction) /)()(worship /)(zhī)(them /)(chǎn)(flatter /)()(..(emphatic) /)(jiàn)(see /)()(righteousness /)()(not /)(wéi)(do /)()(have no /)(yǒng)(bravery /)()(..(emphatic) /)。”

[EN]2-24 The Master said, “For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him(ancestor) is flattery. Seen righteousness but not to do it is lack of courage.”

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